Testosterone Cypionate is long acting formulation of testosterone which is indicated in the treatment of individuals who have absent or very low levels of the hormone. It is sometimes known as Depo testosterone.The testosterone is esterified and thus is quite long acting. It is only available in an injection form. The anabolic steroid is typically dissolved in sesame or cotton seed oil and injected into the buttock area. The drug is slowly released from the injection site for about 7-12 days. The formulation comes as white milky powder and is insoluble in water but freely soluble in most organic solvents including vegetable oil. PharmacologyThe body normally makes sex hormones like testosterone which is responsible for the normal growth and development of the secondary sexual features. This includes growth of the prostate, testes, penis, scrotum, body hair, vocal cord thickening, alterations in body fat and musculature. When testosterone deficiency occurs, the secondary sexual characteristics and body growth is always abnormal. Thus, one of the indications of testosterone therapy is in the treatment of individuals who lack testosterone or are infertile.Indications for useTestosterone Cypionate is used to treat conditions in made where there is a failure of testosterone to be secreted like: primary failure of the testes to make the hormonefailure of the pituitary to release Gonadotropins Body buildingTestosterone and its analogues are widely used by athletes and bodybuilders. The steroid is taken principally to enhance the body and stimulate the psyche. Most bodybuilders who take this drug claim that it causes spontaneous bursts in energy associated with increased aggression. This feature of the drug is used primarily by weight lifters and professional wrestlers. Many athletes also claim that the drug improves their ability to perform exercise at intense levels. Testosterone has moderate anabolic properties but also is a powerful androgenic agent. Because the drug is given by an injection, its effects on the body are not rapid. One may not see any effects for at least 3-4 weeks after starting the injections. Unlike the oral testosterone, the injected formulations last a longer in the body. When taken for more than 4-6 weeks, it can increase body mass and protein anabolism. However, for the body to build muscle one also has to eat a diet rich in calories. Most bodybuilders also take a combination of other hormones at the same time. Because testosterone is converted to estrogen in the fatty tissues, there is always the chance of developing gynecomastia and water retention. To prevent this, most bodybuilders add Arimidex or tamoxifen during the off cycle. During testosterone injections, the natural body testosterone release is inhibited by feedback mechanism through inhibition of pituitary LH. At large doses, even spermatogenesis can be impaired. To allow for the hypothalamic-pituitary axis to recover, it is highly recommended that the drug be tapered off slowly over a period of a few weeks. Sudden discontinuation of the drug can lead to extreme fatigue, weight loss and susceptibility to fractures. ContraindicationsThere are some individuals who should avoid testosterone like steroids because it can worsen the clinical condition. These conditions include: those with allergy to the drugmales with breast cancermales with prostate cancerWomen who are pregnant or breast feedingIndividuals who have liver, kidney or heart problems Side EffectsWhen Testosterone Cypionate is injected at low doses, the side effects are rare. However, long term use is known to be associated with a varied number of side effects - all of which are reversible when the drug is stopped. For the female who decides to take testosterone, there are virilizing side effects which are not always reversible when the drug is stopped. Like all anabolic steroids, testosterone also has a number of side effects which includes: nausea, vomitingabdominal cramps, diarrheaswellingncreased /decreased libidoheadachesacne, oily skinmental change including anger, depression, insomniadiaphoresisloss of hairgynecomastia When taken by females, the drug definitely can cause virilizing effects like: deepening of voicehoarsenessexcess hair growthenlarged clitorisirregular menstrual cycles Testosterone Cypionate is converted into estrogen in the fatty tissues. The estrogen than leads to development of breast enlargement and water retention. This effect is typically seen after the steroid has been used for more than 4 weeks. The gynecomastia does reverse when the steroid is discontinued. Over doseOver dose with Testosterone Cypionate is very rare. The drug is usually administered as an injection. If excess dose is injected, there are no acute side effects but the individual may feel sick for a few weeks. Depending on the dose injected, a visit to the hospital or a physician’s office would not be a bad idea. DosageIn clinical medicine, Testosterone Cypionate is administered as an injection. The oily suspension is injected only into the muscles. Testosterone Cypionate is available in two strengths 100mg/ml and 200 mg/ml. It is only made for intramuscular injection. The drug can be injected into the buttock area once every 7-12 days. The majority of the Testosterone Cypionate is bound to protein and only 2% is free. The drug is supposed to be injected once a week, but there are some bodybuilders who do inject it every other day. This is not recommended and can lead to the formation of abscess, sores and skin infections.The injection site needs to be rotated if the injections are to be continued for a long time. The oily suspension should not be injected into the arms or the abdomen. The dose of Testosterone Cypionate ranges from 50mg-400mg/week, depending on the condition being treated. Bodybuilders tend to inject the higher amount of the drug- 200mg-400mg/week. The drug is then slowly absorbed into the blood stream over the next few days. ControlTestosterone Cypionate is a controlled substance and classified under class 3 under the Controlled Substance Act. It is only available in the USA with a physician’s prescription. Possession, distribution or sell of this anabolic steroid is considered illegal. DetectionAnytime an oily suspension of drug is used, the drug does tend to remain in the body for a long time. Testosterone Cypionate and its metabolites can be detected in the urine for as long as 2-3 weeks after the last injection. Because of this long duration in the body, most bodybuilders prefer to take the drug during the off season.AvailabilityThe majority of bodybuilders get their Testosterone Cypionate from the black market. In the USA the original pharmaceutical product is well controlled and not available for sale. Generic forms of the steroid have been made in Japan, Australia, Mexico, Spain, Brazil and Thailand is all available. Most bodybuilders use between 200-1000mg/week and a vial of 400mg in 2 ml can cost anywhere from $20-$40. this can easily amount to $200 per month depending on the dose. However, like all things in cyberspace the purity and quality of the product is always in question. And fakes products are plentiful..